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Hamilton, Ontario, is one of Canada’s major metropolitan cities. The area’s wastewater treatment plants serve more than 500,000 Hamilton residents and the surrounding towns of Dundas, Ancaster, Water Down, Glanbrook and the former city of Stoney Creek. The treatment plants handle large volumes of sanitary and combined wastewater sewage, placing sizable demands on the pumping equipment.

In sewage grinder pumps, domestic wastewater from one or a few households flows by gravitation to a pumping station equipped with one or two grinder pumps, having a discharge pipe of nominal diameter (DN) 40 or DN 50. This pumping station discharge pipe DN 40/50 is connected to the main sewer via small pipes.

Pump manufacturers know that the engineering phrase “fit and forget” never holds true for rotating equipment. For all its reliability and longevity, a slurry pump that has been operating in a pit for several years will eventually fail.

Several North American government agencies and organizations share the responsibility of protecting the public’s health and safety while serving the best interests of water treatment facilities. Most water treatment facilities recognize that environmental protection is not just the responsibility of government agencies and organizations.

Despite their simplicity, centrifugal pumps often experience repeat failures that even seasoned maintenance and reliability professionals have trouble preventing. This four-part series explains the reasons behind repeat pump failures and uses a real-world field example involving boiler feedwater pumps.

Most homes built before 1970 are connected to a sewer through a gravity sewer system. A gravity sewer system collects wastewater from homes and transports it to a collection line by allowing gravity to force the flow. Collection lines are pipes that are installed at a slope to keep both water flowing and solids in suspension.

The Jordan, Knauff & Company (JKC) Valve Stock Index was up 9 percent during the last 12 months, staying under the broader S&P 500 Index, which was up 13.1 percent. The JKC Pump Stock Index was up 19.1 percent for the same time period.1

The waterfalls in the National September 11 Memorial & Museum cascade forever.

To eternity.

When facilities—whether paper mills, refineries, or chemical or waste treatment plants—decide to implement pump system improvements, the first question is always the same: Where to begin?

Rural wastewater utilities rarely, if ever, consider upgrading to an automated control system. Obtaining funding approval in ever-tightening budgets has always been a hurdle, but the real barrier is the lack of information technology support.



Power factor (PF) is an important component of an alternating current (AC) circuit, but understanding its actual effect can be difficult. Why is PF mysterious to many of us? It has to do with the way it is explained.

In past “Pumping Prescriptions” columns this year, I have discussed the procedure of piping size selection when given the process flow requirement and how this affects the pump’s power consumption. In this column, two computer calculation tools will be detailed.

A reciprocating power pump, as depicted in Figure 1, is a displacement machine. It has characteristics that are different than a centrifugal pump.


The global water crisis claims 5,500 lives each day—more than war, natural disasters, AIDS or hunger. It is a sobering problem but not an impossible one to solve.

Beautiful, inspiring, even haunting—these are some of the words that describe the National 9/11 Memorial fountains in New York.

Cahaba Media Group

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